Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Symptoms and Treatments in India

A condition is that the functional of the kidney function gradually decreases over a period of time are known as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Some of the common symptoms associated with CKD are that the patients feel extremely tired and have no energy. The patients feel the urge to urinate more often at night.  Dry and itchy skin can be one of the symptoms associated with Chronic Kidney Disease. Poor appetite and have trouble concentrating, are some of the symptoms associated with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The patients having chronic kidney disease usually have problems sleeping and have muscle cramping at night. Swollen feet and ankles with puffiness around the eyes are some of the prominent symptoms associated with chronic kidney disease.

The chronic kidney disease can be diagnosed through Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). For the purpose of measuring the effective level of kidney functioning and determining the stage of chronic kidney disease, the doctors often prescribe Glomerular Filtration Rate tests or examinations. Depending upon the stage of chronic kidney disease, different drugs or another method of treatment can be advised by doctors. The main focus of doctors is often to treat the cause of chronic kidney disease instead of treating the systems alone.

Some complications can occur due to high blood pressure medications and medications to lower cholesterol levels during treatment of chronic kidney disease. The treatments followed by doctors when drugs fail to work are dialysis. For the purpose of artificially removing the waste from the body of the patients, the sophisticated process of dialysis is used. The dialysis of a kidney is divided into hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. A dialysis machine filters excessive waste from the body in the case of hemodialysis. In peritoneal dialysis, a catheter (a thin tube) is inserted in the body that provides effective dialysis by absorbing excessive fluids and waste from the kidney.

Chronic Kidney Disease treatment india

Kidney transplantation in India can be preferred for the treatment of chronic kidney disease if other drugs and dialysis fail to work. Surgically removing the healthy kidney from the donor and transplanted into the patients under the supervision of high dose of immune-suppression drugs. The patients undergoing kidneys needs medication for whole life for the purpose of ensuring that the transplanted kidney doesn’t get rejected by the body.

For dialysis or kidney transplant, the patients first consult the well-known and best hospitals with world renowned Urologist in India. Effective treatment at low cost with fast recovery, make few Urology Consultants extremely popular and well-known in Delhi.

Apart from chronic kidney diseases, the patients can consult Kidney Stone Specialist Doctor in Delhi for effective diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones in India.

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Uterine Fibroids Effect on African-American Women

Uterine Fibroids are benign tumors that originate in the woman’s uterus. Diagnosed by a pelvic exam and ultrasound, they are usually round and are often described based upon their location within their uterus. This medical condition has effected many different women, but the one group it has impacted the most are African-American women.

Why does it seem to be more common in black women than in any other female group? Dr. Michelle Luthringshausen OB/GYN, Director of Robotics at Northwest Community Hospital talked to Brandi Walker about this issue, the symptoms and causes of fibroids and the best fibroids treatment in India

  1. How common are uterine fibroids in black women compared to other women?

African American women suffer with uterine fibroids more than any other ethnic group. Up to 80 percent of African American Women will develop uterine fibroids in their lifetime, but fortunately only half of those women (40 percent of African American women) will have health issues related to the fibroids. In comparison, 30 percent of Caucasian American women and 20 percent of Asian American women will have uterine fibroid issues.

  1. Why is it more common in black women?

No one knows exactly why uterine fibroids are more common in African American women, but there are theories and there are likely multiple reasons. The most likely reason is genetics – the women inherit the risk. Any woman (African American, Caucasian, or Asian) with a sister or mother with uterine fibroids are 2-3 times more likely to have fibroids than women without them in the family. African American women likely have a higher incidence of the genes that cause fibroids.

Uterine Fibroids Effect on African-American Women2

  1. What are its symptoms and causes Fibroids?

Fibroids are non-cancerous growths that arise from a single cell in the muscle of the uterus. One fibrous cell is stimulated by estrogen and progesterone and begins dividing abnormally, over and over again, forming a ball of rubbery tissue that grows and pushes on the tissues around it. Most fibroids grow about 1 or 2 cms in diameter per year. Fibroids can usually be seen on pelvic ultrasound when they reach the size of marbles, and can grow to be the size of watermelons. Other than genetic risk, there are other risk factors for developing symptomatic uterine fibroids. They are African descent, bearing no children, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and young age at first menstruation. Dietary risk factors have also been identified – a diet higher in red meat and carbohydrates, low in green vegetables and fruit, and drinking alcohol appear to increase the risk of developing fibroids. Half of uterine fibroids cause no symptoms. When they do cause symptoms, the woman may have heavy or irregular uterine bleeding, bloating, pressure or pain in the pelvis, urinary frequency, constipation, and pain with sex or exercise. Women with fibroids can develop varicose veins, and may have fertility problems. Sometimes, fibroids can cause life-threatening bleeding or completely obstruct the bowels, bladder, or outflow from the kidneys, requiring emergency surgery.

  1. What are the best treatment methods for fibroids?

Although many treatment options exist, there is no cure for uterine fibroids other than hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and perhaps, but not always, menopause. The treatment chosen for symptomatic uterine fibroids is dependent upon many factors: the age and fertility desires of the woman, the specific symptoms being treated, and the size and location of the uterine fibroids. Hormonal therapies like oral contraceptive pills and progesterone IUDs are best for symptoms of bleeding and do not stop fibroid growth nor decrease bulk-related symptoms. Medicines that block estrogen and progesterone production by the ovary, or block estrogen and progesterone receptors, can shrink fibroids. Unfortunately, these medications have other side effects that limit their use, and the fibroids return to their prior size shortly after stopping the medication. These medications are primarily used in women to stop bleeding and increase blood counts in preparation for surgery, in women on the brink of menopause to try to avoid surgery, or in women too sick to undergo surgery for life-threatening fibroid symptoms. For women who want to get pregnant, iron supplementation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications like ibuprofen and naproxen can control mild symptoms of fibroids. MRI-focused ultrasound ablation achieves a modest reduction in fibroid size and bleeding. Laparoscopic radiofrequency “melting” or myomectomy (surgical removal of the fibroids) are the only other options available. The surgical route of myomectomy depends upon the location and size of the fibroids and can be performed by hysteroscopy (from inside the uterus), laparoscopy (minimally invasive) with or without robotic assistance, or by laparotomy (open incision on abdomen). For women whose main complaint is heavy bleeding and who have small to moderate-sized fibroids and do not desire future pregnancy, surgical options are removal of the uterine lining (endometrial ablation), uterine artery blockage (embolization), or hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). For women who no longer desire pregnancy and who have larger fibroids causing bulk symptoms or bleeding, hysterectomy is advised. Hysterectomy does not equal menopause, as the ovaries can be left behind to continue to produce hormones. The type of hysterectomy recommended will depend upon the woman’s body type, history of childbearing and prior surgeries, family history of cancers, size of the uterus, and the surgeon’s skill set. Most women should be candidates for a minimally invasive approach to hysterectomy, even with large fibroids. Minimally invasive approaches to hysterectomy (vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic assisted laparoscopic) result in less complications, less postoperative pain and faster recoveries than open incision hysterectomies.

Uterine Fibroids Effect on African-American Women1

  1. What are its risk factors during pregnancy?

Although uterine fibroids are common and usually cause no problems in pregnancy, they do double the risk of postpartum hemorrhage, and triple the risk of c-section. Fibroids located inside the cavity of the uterus may prevent pregnancy implantation or cause recurrent miscarriages, and can cause bleeding in pregnancy. 30 percent of fibroids grow early in the pregnancy. Fibroids may grow rapidly in pregnancy and cause severe pain and sometimes cause preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes. Fibroids can also crowd the fetus and at time of delivery can prevent the normal “head down” position of the baby or obstruct the birth canal. These women must undergo c-section for delivery. Fibroids can prevent delivery of the placenta, or cause the placenta to implant abnormally causing premature or incomplete separation of the placenta during labor and delivery leading to hemorrhage. Life-threatening bleeding prior to delivery puts both the baby and mother at risk, and bleeding following delivery may require procedures to block the uterine arteries or even hysterectomy. Although some of these complications are severe, fortunately, most pregnancies in women with fibroids are uneventful.

Prostate Cancer Research with Transgenic Mouse Model

Prostate cancer is the cancer developed in the male reproductive system. The cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, such as the bones and lymph nodes. According to the past statistics, prostate cancer will likely claim more than thirty thousand lives of men in the United States each year, and some more men will be diagnosed with the disease. To date, it is believed that the primary risk factors are obesity, age and family history, but a comprehensive understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive.

 

Progress towards the investigation of prostate cancer has been slow due to the lack of suitable animal models that can adequately reproduce the spectrum of benign, latent, aggressive, and metastatic forms of the human diseases, helping studying the spectrum of this uniquely human disease. Although naturally occurring prostatic disease has been reported in some animal’s species, such as canine and rodent animals, these animals still fail to provide the appropriate models to adequately study the molecular mechanisms related to the early development and progression of human prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Research with Transgenic Mouse Model1

Researchers have started a research program to establish transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer by using a prostate-specific transgenic expression system that has been developed in their laboratories based on the rat probasin (rPB)-encoding gene. To develop an animal model for prostate cancer, they generate several lines of transgenic mice by using the prostate-specific rat probasin promoter to drive expression of the simian virus 40 large tumor antigencoding region. According to their observation, mice express high levels of the transgene and display progressive forms of prostatic disease that histologically resemble human prostate cancer. And prostate tumors have been successfully detected in the mice prostate as early as 10 weeks of age. The immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue has demonstrated that dorsolateral prostate-specific secretory proteins are confined to well differentiate ductal epithelial cells adjacent to, or within tumor mass. What’s more, the prostate tumors in the mice also display elevated levels of nuclear p53 and a decreased heterogeneous pattern of androgen-receptor expression, as observed in advanced human prostate cancer.

The simian virus 40 (SV40) early-region tumor antigens with the ability to induce transformation in vivo have also been used to facilitate this study. The SV40 large tumor T antigen acts as an oncoprote in through interactions with the retinoblastoma and p53 tumor-suppressor gene products, and the small tantigen interacts with a protein phosphatase. They have been used successfully in transgenic mice to induce a transformed state in a variety of systems, including pancreas, mammary gland, and others. It is believed that the directly expressing SV40 tumor antigen in the prostate epithelium of transgenic mice may provide a better mouse model for the development and progression of prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Research with Transgenic Mouse Model2

According to their recent study, the rPB gene encodes an androgen- and zinc-regulated protein specific to the dorsolateral epithelium (6-8) and isolation of the rPB gene has facilitated identification of cis-acting androgen-response regions within the 5′ flanking region. The ability of the prostate-specific rPB gene promoter to target heterologous genes specifically to the prostate in transgenic mice has been demonstrated. The minimal rPB promoter is specifically regulated by androgens in vivo with the ability to target developmentally and hormonally regulated expression of a heterologous gene specifically to the prostate in transgenic mice. And it has been used to target expression of the SV40 early-region genes specifically to the prostate of transgenic mice.

Nowadays, the establishment of breeding lines of transgenic mice provides an animal model system to study the molecular basis of transformation of normal prostatic cells and the factors influencing the progression to metastatic prostate cancer. The ability to induce prostatic disease in a transgenic mouse provides an animal model system to better study prostate cancer and the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. By the way, the US-based bio-tech service company Creative Animodel, as a professional animal model service supplier, can help develop high quality transgenic mouse models for research use.

Source : Prostate Cancer Treatment in India

Facts about fibroids

With National Women’s Health Week (May 8-14) fast approaching, it is time to highlight a common, but rarely discussed gynecological problem faced by millions of women, namely uterine fibroids, despite the fact that they are reported to be the most common benign tumors in women of childbearing age in the US. In fact, recent studies involving randomly selected women across the country between ages 35- 49 years found that the incidence of uterine fibroids by age 35 was 60% among African-American women and 40% among Caucasian women. The incidence increased by age 50 to greater than 80% and to almost 70% for African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. In addition, it was revealed that the condition is responsible for nearly 1/3 (roughly 200,000) of all hysterectomies in the US each year. Moreover, in 2007, there were an estimated 355,137 uterine fibroid-related hospitalizations in women aged 15–54 years.

 

Fibroids are made of muscle cells and other tissues that grow in and around the wall of the uterus, or womb. Symptoms of uterine fibroids can range from mild to severe and often include (but are not limited to): abnormal uterine bleeding characterized by long, heavy, and / or irregular menstrual cycles, passing clots; pelvic pain; pelvic pressure, backache, and abdominal bloating, distortion; infertility and recurrent miscarriages. They may also be the cause premature labor or interference with the position of the fetus.

large uterine fibroid

Yet the survey found that women often wait an average of 3.6 years from onset of symptoms before seeking treatment and 42% of women saw 2 or more healthcare providers before diagnosis. The cause of fibroids is unknown. However, fibroids run in families and appear to be partly determined by hormone levels. In fact, they are dependent on estrogen and progesterone to grow and therefore relevant only during the reproductive years. Risk factors include obesity and eating a lot of red meat. Diagnosis may occur by pelvic examination or medical imaging.

 

Most fibroids do not require treatment unless they are causing symptoms. Current fibroid treatments, however, include medication to control symptoms including oral contraceptives (to reduce uterine bleeding and cramping); medication aimed at shrinking tumors (including aromatase inhibitors); ultrasound fibroid destruction; myomectomy or radio frequency ablation; hysterectomy; and uterine artery embolization. In the meantime it should be noted that fibroids tend to shrink after menopause and it is unusual for them to cause problems at that time.

and it is unusual for them to cause problems at that time.

Source: http://www.urocareindia.com/best-cost-fibroids-uterus-surgery-treatment-hospital-top-surgeon-in-delhi-mumbai-chennai-india.php

Detect Prostate Cancer Early with These Tests

Prostate cancer is a real threat for men across the world. No man is safe, which is why preventative methods should be employed to reduce chances of an occurrence. The alternative cancer treatment centers in India are capable of screening for and treating prostate cancer India. There are different types of tests on the market today, most of which are invasive and uncomfortable for the patient. However, it’s important for men to know the available options at conventional, as well as naturopathic medicine centers in Phoenix.

The best way to fight cancer is to prevent it. But when that isn’t enough, early detection is key. The following methods are used by conventional doctors when looking for early warning signs of prostate cancer.

PSA Blood Test

Both cancerous and normal prostate cells create a substance called prostate-specific antigens (PSA). This substance is mostly found inside of semen, but can also be found within your bloodstream. Most healthy men will have levels beneath four nanograms per millimeter of blood. Prostate cancer risks rise when these levels increase.

It is possible for someone to have prostate cancer without having their PSA levels rise. Around 15 percent of males with PSA levels beneath four have prostate cancer confirmed by a biopsy. PSA levels between four and 10 gives you a one in four chance of getting prostate cancer. Levels above 10 increases risks to over 50 percent.

There are different factors that can present a false positive in PSA blood tests. For example, it can be increased by:

  • Older age
  • Prostatitis
  • Ejaculation (shouldn’t be done two days before test)
  • Riding a bike
  • Certain medications
  • Certain urologic procedures
  • Enlarged prostate

Some alternative cancer treatment centers in Phoenix may use this method.

Detect Prostate Cancer Early with These Tests

Digital Rectal Exam

This is another invasive method that a lot of men are uncomfortable with performing. This is when the doctor inserts a gloved lubricated finger into your rectum to feel around for hard areas and bumps. This test is less reliable than the PSA blood test.

Color Power Doppler Ultrasound

This is a non-invasive procedure that utilizes ultrasound equipment to capture sonographic images of the prostate. It’s more sophisticated than a typical ultrasound. It uses higher frequency sound waves, allowing for a higher resolution color image of your prostate and any cancer growths that may be present. This type of procedure is available at UrocareIndia, one of the top alternative cancer treatment centers not only in Delhi but the INDIA.

The Effects of Obesity on Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the lesser-known effects of obesity. Evidence suggests that obesity both increases the risk of prostate cancer and contributes to a poor prostate cancer prognosis, partly because obesity interferes with diagnostic evaluation of the prostate.

Does Obesity Increase Prostate Cancer Risk?

Whether an increased risk of prostate cancer is one of the effects of obesity has been a topic of fierce debate among urologists and oncologists.

High fat diets that contribute to obesity increase the risk of prostate cancer. Increased rates of prostate cancer in countries such as Japan began at the same time as an increase in high-fat western diets. While these figures don’t prove a definite connection between the effects of obesity and prostate cancer, they do suggest the possibility that a healthy diet may be important in heading off cancers of various types.

The Effects of Obesity 1

Obesity and Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

Obesity can hide early signs of prostate cancer. A prostate cancer biopsy is the definitive diagnostic tool for prostate cancer. Doctors will usually only perform a prostate cancer biopsy after screening tests detect the possibility of cancer. Obesity can interfere with these screening tools.

The simplest screening tool for prostate cancer is the digital rectal exam. This exam is more difficult to perform in obese patients, as fat tissue may mask a growing prostate tumor. Some patients may put off examinations because they’re embarrassed by their obesity.

The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test. High levels of PSA indicate the possibility of cancer and the need for a prostate cancer biopsy. Fat cells produce hormones that reduce levels of PSA in the blood, reducing the likelihood of early prostate cancer detection.

The Effects of Obesity 2

The Effects of Obesity on Prostate Cancer Prognosis

Because the effects of obesity often delay a prostate cancer biopsy, an obese man often has a less favorable prostate cancer prognosis when compared to men of normal weight. Prostate cancer death rates are higher in men with high body mass indexes.

A study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (2004) concluded that men with BMI scores higher than 30 are up to 34 percent more likely to die from prostate cancer death than men with BMI scores from 18.5 to 24.9.

Obesity may have also impact a prostate cancer prognosis in other ways. Obese men have a greater risk of aggressive prostate cancer, according to the Journal of Clinical Oncology (2004) report. As with so many of the effects of obesity, determining why obese men tend to develop aggressive prostate cancer is unclear.

Exercise Could Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer Death

A groundbreaking study from the Harvard School of Public Health and the University of California, San Francisco finds men with prostate cancer who regularly exercise have a lower risk of dying from the disease.

The study evaluated physical activity after the men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and its relation to mortality, specifically associated with the disease, as well as overall mortality.

The study, which appears in the online edition of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, included research of 2,705 men over an 18-year period. The men told researchers the average amount of time they spent doing physical activity like walking, swimming and working outdoors. Study researchers say men who did more vigorous activity overall were less likely to die from prostate cancer.

Exercise Could Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer Death1

“This is good news for men living with prostate cancer who wonder what lifestyle practices to follow to improve cancer survival,” says study lead author Stacey Kenfield.

Prostate cancer will affect one in six men during their life, according to the Harvard School of Public Health. The disease is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American men. Kenfield says the study results suggest that men can reduce their risk of prostate cancer progression after being diagnosed by adding exercise to their daily routine.

Exercise Could Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer Death2

The study looked at both non-vigorous and vigorous activity in participants and results showed both were actually beneficial. “Our results suggest that men with prostate cancer should do some physical activity for their overall health, even if it is a small amount, such as 15 minutes of activity per day,” says Kenfield, who recommended walking, gardening or biking.

However, vigorous activity for more than three hours per week was associated with significantly lowering the risk of dying from prostate cancer. Those who participated in this type of exercise had a 61 percent lower risk of death than those who did less than one hour per week of vigorous exercise.

Scientists are also looking at ways to use the immune system to reduce prostate cancer risks by exploring immune therapy treatments, but for now, daily exercise, which has also shown to improve cardiovascular health, may improve the odds against cancer deaths.